Chemical Engineering

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    Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Goreng Bekas Dengan Proses Catalytic Cracking
    (2015-12-12) Israyandi; Zahrina Ida; Yelmida
    Crude oil is a very important requirement in life. Fuel used now derived from petroleum are not renewable and dwindling availability. Biodiesel is one of the solutions of these problems. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can substitute for petroleum diesel is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. The manufacture of biofuels by using catalytic cracking feedstock used cooking oil. Research variable that used is the variation of temperature process, 380oC, 400oC, 420oC and weight ratio of raw materials to the zeolite that has activated 1:50, 1:75, 1:100. This research aims to produce a maximum yield of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by catalytic cracking catalyst with NZA. The best Yield was obtained which amounted to 82% in comparison with the catalyst 420oC with ratio temperature and raw materials is 1:50.
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    Pengaruh Konsentrasi Pelarut Dan Rasio Padat-Cair Pada Ekstraksi Silika Dari Fly Ash (Abu Terbang) Batu Bara
    (2015-12-12) Thamrin, Ali; Aman; Sunarno
    Using coal in industrial and power plant always increase every year. Increasing using of coal linearly with number of productrion waste of fly ash from coal. One of alternative method for using fly ash as raw material of silicate. On this research using some variable : solvent consentration (2, 2,5 and 3M) and ratio of solute – liquid (1:6, 1:8 and 1:10). From the analysis of sample with using gravimetry method acquired optimal condition on solvent consentration 3 M and ratio solute-liquid 1:10 with silicate convertion 41,3%.
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    (2015-12-12) Putra, F. P.; Aman; Drastinawati
    Use of Methylene Blue as a main ingredient in the dye becomes a problem for environmental pollution. It also occurs in the use of coal as fuel is increasing linearly who will be directly proportional to the fly ash waste generated. This study aims to determine the optimum conditions of adsorbent size and the speed of stirring. Adsorption of Methylene Blue performed by mixing with coal fly ash on the condition of adsorbent size (> 100 and 100- 200) mesh and stirring speed (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240) rpm. Adsorption results were analyzed by using a spectrophotometer, the optimum conditions obtained capacities variation of fly ash on the adsorbent is 100-200 mesh size and the optimum conditions capacities fly ash at variable speed is 180 rpm. Adsorption shows a decrease in the power jerap fly ash Methylene Blue dye from the initial 10 mg / g adsorbent to 0.666 mg / g of adsorbent.
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    Perengkahan Katalitik Minyak Goreng Bekas Untuk Produksi Biofuel Menggunakan Katalis Ni/Zeolit
    (2015-12-12) Bachtas, Gatot Putra; Zahrina Ida; Yelmida
    Diversification of energy is the utilization of alternative energy, one of which is biofuel (BBN), which is a readily available alternative energy in Indonesia. This study aims to produce a maximum yield of biofuel from catalytic cracking of waste cooking oil catalyst with a Ni / Zeolite. Cracking performed in a stirred batch reactor for 3 hours with a catalyst concentration Ni / Zeolite 1% and N2 flow rate 150 ml / min. Yield maximum of biofuel is obtained at a temperature of 400 0C with catalyst ratio 1/75 amount 67.5%. Cracking results were analyzed by GCMS method. Cracking product is a liquid alkane constituent of the fuel of 75.34% with conversion of 48.97%.
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    Perengkahan Katalitik Minyak Goreng Bekas Untuk Produksi Biofuel Menggunakan Katalis Cu/Zeolit
    (2014-11-02) Saputra, Benny; Zahrina Ida; Yelmida
    Fossil fuel is the primary source of energy derived from fossil and non-renewable, and availability is limited. Biofuel is one of the solutions and alternative energy sources. This study aims to produce a maximum yield of biofuel from catalytic cracking of waste cooking oil with catalyst Cu / Zeolite. Yield maximum of biofuel is obtained at a temperature of 400 0C with catalyst ratio 1/75 of 62.5%. Cracking results were analyzed by GCMS method. Cracking product is a liquid alkane constituent of the fuel of 69.85% with conversion amount 43.66%.
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    Biodiesel dari Limbah Ikan Baung (Mystus Nemurus) dengan Katalis Padat H-Zeolit
    (2013-08-28) Sartoni, Hadyan; Bahri Syaiful; Sunarno
    Biodiesel is an alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from fatty material such as animal fat. A research synthesis of biodiesel from waste fish oil of baung into biodiesel with a solid H-zeolite catalyst. In this research review of physical properties (density, viscosity and acid number), analyzing the chemical content of biodiesel, the influence of the molar ratio of methanol to fish oil baung the percentage of conversion and optimal transesterification catalyst in the transesterification reaction in biodiesel synthesis. 50 grams of fish oil, versus 1:6 methanol to oil molar, catalyst 10% of the weight of oil input into the biodiesel reactor and then the process of biodiesel synthesis performed on the operating conditions of 60 ° C temperature and stirring speed of 200 rpm for 200 minutes. The results showed that the optimum conversion catalyst with 10% methanol 1:5 molar ratio that is equal to 87.02%. Physical test results obtained by the density of 890 kg/m3, 5.48 cSt viscosity, acid number 0.7013 mg-koh/gr sample. Results of analysis of chemical constituents by GC-MS, obtained the dominant component in the catalyst biodiesel with 10% methanol 1:5 molar ratio was 51.03% oleic methyl ester, methyl ester palmitic 18.76%, 9.50% linoleic methyl ester, 4.46% stearic acid methyl ester, methyl ester 2.00% elaidic. Results obtained have characteristics approaching the characteristics of biodiesel Indonesian National Standard (SNI).
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    (2013-08-26) Hassan, Teuku Azhari; Komalasari
    Addition of corrosion inhibitor volume into mixing produce oil and water is the methode to protect the inner pipe that can support reliability of the system. The used inhibitor is a kind of organic inhibitor which is generally contain of amin and used to resist corrosion rate for carbon steel which is a pipe material to distribute mixing produce oil and water. The relationship of fluide flow rate and addition of inhibitor volume is very important to understand. One of its parameter is corrosion rate measurement using corrosion coupon. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of fluide flow rate and addition of inhibitor volume and to find the best condition of corrosion rate in the system. From the experimental results can be concluded that the highest fluide flow rate can increase the corrosion rate. The addition of corrosion inhibitor volume can resist the corrosion rate. The 2,5 gal/day inhibitor was the best inhibitor volume to resist the corrosion rate at variant fluide floe rate, which is 0,3 MPY for 40.000 bbl/day, 0,44 MPY for 60.000 bbl/day, 0,7 MPY for 80.000 bbl/day.
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    Studi Kinetika Adsorpsi Logam Cu2+ dengan Menggunakan Adsorben Zeolit Alam Teraktifasi
    (2013-08-26) Hidayati, Betty; Sunarno,; Yenti Silvia Reni
    Copper metal is a heavy metal from industrial waste and relatively often found as contaminants in the water, because it was the presence of copper metal waste should be minimized. One method that has been developed to minimize the presence of Cu2+ is the metal adsorption process, is one of the natural zeolite adsorbents are widely used for the adsorption process because it is widely available in nature and has a high selectivity. This study aims to determine a suitable kinetic model for metal adsorption process of Cu2+ to see the power adsorption activated natural zeolite and the influence of temperature on the adsorption rate constant. The study was conducted by varying the contact time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes) and temperature (300C, 400C and 500C). Copper metal adsorption results were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that the model is suitable for metal adsorption kinetics of Cu2+ with activated natural zeolite following the model of first order with a value of k = 0.0119 min-1 for the variation of the contact time and each k = 0,0111 min-1; 0,0123 min-1; 0,0145 min-1 for a temperature variation of 300C, 400C and 500C and the value of the activation energy for the adsorption process is equal to 10,841 kJ/mol.
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    Pemurnian Selulosa Alfa Pelepah Sawit Menggunakan Enzim Xylanase
    (2013-08-26) Caesari; Padil; Yelmida
    Midrib of palm oil is the most solid wastes which produced in oil palm plantations. Palm midrib is contained of 34.89% α-cellulose content percentage that can be improved with cooking using the extract solution ash of palm empty fruit bunches (Padil, 2010) and continued with the process of purification using xylanase enzyme. Higher content of Cellulose-α can be processed into a more commercially product. Cellulose-α> 92% qualified to be used as the main raw material (nitrocellulose) or making explosives and propellants. Stages of the purification process a palm midrib cellulose is extraction, hydrolysis, delignification and purification using xylanase enzyme with variations process is temperature (50, 60 and 70 ° C), enzyme dose (1, 2 and 3 ml) and the source of the enzyme (Aspergillus and Trichoderma sp so). Purification process operating conditions are: pH 5, time 90 minutes, the solid-solution 1:25. Content of purified cellulose-α increased to 96.60% for variable temperature at 60 ° C, 3 ml dose of enzymes and enzyme xylanase from Aspergillus sp.
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    (2013-08-26) Sari, D. P; Padil; Yelmida
    Midrib palm is one of the waste that produced from palm farming which contain alpha cellulose about 35%. The component of alpha cellulose could be used as a raw material for nitrocellulose if it is has more than 92% of purity. So to increase the purity of alpha cellulose, midrib palm has to be treated by purifying step. In this time, chemical still be choices to be material for purify alpha cellulose, while as we know that chemical has a bad impact for our envirotment. So it is important to search another purifying agent and it is xylanase. Xylanase is one of enzyme that has an ability to break up the link between xylose in xylan. So the purpose of this research are to use xylanase as another purifying agent, to know what is the best pH for this purifying process and to compare the result between two xylanases that produced from different fungi. Before start the purifying step, midrib have to through extraction step to remove all extractive and continue with hydrolisis step by using extraction liquid of palm empty bunch ash. Then after that purifying step can be done at 600C for 1,5 hours by making some differences at pH (4,5 and 6). The highest purity of alpha cellulose was reached at pH 6 by using xylanase from Aspergillus niger about 97,55%. So the conclucion of this research are, the best pH for purifying process by using xylanase is 6 and the best xylanase is the one which produce from Aspergillus niger. Beside that, the use of xylanase which is comes from the same species will be not affected much to the purifying result.
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    Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Sawit Off-grade
    (2013-08-26) Budiawan, Rangga
    One source of vegetable oil that hasn’t been used and generated from sortation process in palm oil mill is off-grade oil palm fruit. Availability of off-grade oil palm fruit is about 7-10% for a Palm Oil Mill with capacity 30 ton per hour and has potential to cause environmental pollution. The objective of this research were to produce biodiesel from off-grade oil palm fruit by two step reaction, to characterize and to study the effect of transesterification process condition such as, concentration of NaOH catalyst, molar ratio of methanol to oil and reaction temperature on yield, acid number, density and viscosity of biodiesel. Experimental design determined by Central Composite Design (CCD) with three variables. The impact of process condition to responses were analyzed using a statistical software (Design Expert 6.0). The result showed that the highest yield of biodiesel obtained is 93,45% with molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1, reaction temperature at 50°C and 0,75% (w/w) of NaOH. The most influence factor are concentration of NaOH catalyst and reaction temperature. The characteristic of biodiesel such as acid value, density, viscosity and flash point has met the standard biodiesel of Indonesia. In this research, various process conditions is not significantly affected the characteristics of biodiesel.
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    Ekstraksi Sawit Off-grade Menggunakan Metode Artisanal
    (2013-08-26) Nugroho, Dian Agung; Zulfansyah; Helwani Zuchra
    Sorting systems at oil mills produce off-grade oil palm (palm fruit maturity beyond grade). Off-grade oil palm produced in Riau province estimated 437 – 625 tons / hour. Processing off-grade oil palm will only produce Crude Palm Oil (CPO), which has low quality. Therefore we need an appropriate technology to process off-grade oil palm to make it more economically valuable. Oil extraction method consists of traditional methods, artisanal methods and conventional methods. Artisanal method requires only simple technology and aims for obtain maximum yield. Presses a tool used in this study is Spindle hydraulic press. Off-grade oil palm steamed in a sterilizer unit using a variety of steaming time 120 minutes, 180 minutes, and 240 minutes. Once the steaming time is reached, the fruit of steaming pressed by using a variation of pressure 10 bars, 20 bars, and 30 bars. During hot pressing water added as much as 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight. Data analysis that yields, levels of free fatty acids (FFA), moisture content, and the content of impurities. The data were analyzed using the response surface method (RSM). Obtained the maximum yield is 13.18% with levels of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) 21.54%, water content 6.41%, and 1.59% levels of impurities when using sterilization time of 120 minutes, pengepress pressure of 30 bar, and the addition of 15% of hot water.
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    (2013-07-26) Dani, F; A. Fadli; Bahruddin
    The present work reports a simple process for fabrication of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics from aqueous powder slurries using wheat particles as pore forming agent. Wheat particles incorporated in aqueous TCP slurries rapidly absorb water on heating and transform it into a strong gel. The dried green bodies showed shrinkage in the range 53,22-55,87%. Removal of the pore former followed by sintering at 1000 and 1100˚C produced TCP bodies with porosity 59,48–78,40% and compressive strength 0,30-2,53 MPa.
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    Delignifikasi Batang Jagung dengan Proses Organosolv Menggunakan Pelarut Asam Formiat
    (2013-07-19) Puspitasari, Shelviana Hanika; Zulfansyah
    Corn stalk is agricultural solid waste which has not been utilized to the optimum. So far only used for fodder and green manure. Corn stalk delignification experiments intended to study the possibility of utilization of corn stalks as an alternative raw material for the pulp industry, as well as to determine the reliability of formic acid as a medium delignification fractionation and corn stalks in the organosolv process. Corn stalk delignification experiment is carried out at a laboratory scale batch. Experimental variables studied, the concentration of formic acid 70; 80; 90% by weight, the reaction time of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180 minutes and the ratio of liquid-solid 10/1, with a catalyst concentration of 0.2% hydrochloric acid. The experimental results showed that the corn stalks can be used as a pulp with organosolv process and produce pulp yield from 31.88 to 47.01% and from 10 to 14.31% pulp lignin content, which varies according to the condition of the experimental data with the level of compliance with the model exceeds 95% (R-square> 95%). The whole process variables influential in yield and lignin content, and the quality of the resulting pulp pulp industry standards.
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    Effect Of Stirring Speed And Molar Ratio In Process Plasticizer Isobutyl Stearate
    (2013-07-16) Qaulan, Salamun; Nirwana; Irdoni
    Production of vegetable oils such as CPO (Crude Palm Oil) increased from year to year, but towards the development of non-food products is still limited one of which is the plasticizer. Plasticizer production of vegetable oil is still very little, it is necessary to the development of vegetable oil-based plasticizers. Plasticizer is an organic solvent with a high boiling point or a solid with a low melting point. Vegetable oil plasticizers can be synthesized by esterification using an acid catalyst. The purpose of this study is to Make isobutyl stearate plasticizers by esterification using H-zeolite catalyst and Studying the effect of stirring speed and the molar ratio of stearic acid esterification and isobutanol. In this study the synthesis of plasticizers isobutyl stearate esterification using natural zeolite catalysts activated to H-zeolite with a variable speed to vary is stirring (150, 175, and 200 rpm) and the molar ratio of stearic acid with isobutanol (1:4, 1 : 6, and 1:9) with a fixed variable is 98-1020C temperature, long reaction time of 360 minutes and as much as 15% catalyst based stearic acid. From the test results showed that the rate of stirring and the molar ratio of plasticizer effect on the synthesis of isobutyl stearate. Optimal operating conditions were obtained at stirring speed 175 rpm and with a 1:9 molar ratio of 70.8% mol conversion reaction. Characteristics of plasticizers that found only one that meets that standard commercial plasticizers specific gravity of 0.85
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    Pengaruh Penambahan KH2PO4, MGSO4.7H2O, dan (NH4)2SO4 Terhadap Fermentasi Nira Nipah Menjadi Bioetanol Menggunakan Sacharomyces cereviceae pada Fermentor 70 Liter
    (2013-07-16) Firnanda, Yerri; Chairul; Yenti Silvia Reni
    Ethanol consumption of the world for a variety of uses has increased very significantly in recent years. Therefore it is necessary to alternate sources of raw materials to manufacture bioethanol and bioethanol production can be increased. Nipa sap is one of potential materials to be processed into bioethanol. Availability of nypa palm land in Indonesia and a fairly high sugar content (15-20%) makes nipa sap has the potential to be processed into bioethanol. Through a fermentation process using yeast Saccharomyces cereviceae, glucose is converted into bioethanol and carbon dioxide. Starter preparation is done by the yeast Saccharomyces cereviceae inoculum in the 10% of fermentation medium so that yeast is able to adapt and ready for fermentation. Fermentation takes place in batches with a volume of 50 liters of fermentation medium, variety of nutrient enrichment KH2PO4 (0.6, 0.9 1.2 g / l), MgSO4.7H2O (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 g / l) , and (NH4) 2SO4 (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 g / l) and variations of fermentation time 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66 and 72 hours. Stirring speed of 200 rpm and temperature of fermentation at room temperature (25 - 300C). Ethanol concentration was analyzed by using Alkoholmeter. The process of optimum fermentation conditions shown in run 3 with variations addition to a concentration of 0.5, 0.7, 1.2 g / l and fermentation time 60 hours with initial sugar concentration of 205.278 mg / ml. Ethanol concentrations obtained in these conditions was 13% (v / v) or 102.609 mg / ml with the acquisition of 98.010% yield.
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    Kajian Pengaruh Variasi Ukuran Partikel dan Lama Waktu Pengadukan pada Proses Pembuatan Asam Oksalat dari Ampas Tebu
    (2013-07-16) Wulandari R.G, Agustin; Yenti Silvia Reni; Herman Syamsu
    Bagasse is a by-product from the processing of sugar cane into sugar. The growing number of bagasse quantitatively into environmental problems that require attention and special handling. Bagasse contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose which contained in bagasse can be processed into useful products, such as oxalic acid by means of fusion with sodium hydroxide. Oxalic acid will be produced with the addition of calcium chloride and sulfuric acid. This research was conducted to study the effect of variations of the particle size and the length of time under stirring. Based on the results of the research that has been done using bagasse as much as 15 grams, 4N NaOH concentration, the melting time is 105 minutes, the melting temperature is 180 °C, stirring speed is 300 rpm, highest product yield (%) obtained was 4,333% at particle size 40 mesh and time under stirring for 20 minutes, as much as 0,65 grams.
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    (2013-07-16) Irawati, Dona; HS Irdoni; Nirwana
    Year by year, the used of plasticizer in the world has been improving, where the raw material that is mostly used comes from petroleum. However, the continuing degradation of petroleum reserve demands the plasticizer industry to find alternative sources. One of alternative sources that can be used is the waste of “Patin” fish oil. The process of making plasticizer from this alternative material is conducted by transesterificating the fish oil with isoprophanol and H-Zeolit catalyst. This experiment is made by using the agitated reactor. The agitation speed is around 175rpm and the temperature is 79-80C. The reaction time is around (4, 5, and 6 hours) with catalyst composition is around (5; 10; 15% of the total weight). The highest conversion resulted is 76, 87%, the reaction time is 6 hours, and the composition of catalyst is 15%. This result of transesterization is tested by using GCMS method. The result show that there is no main ester product found as expected, but it results isopropyl stearat 0,52%.
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    (2013-07-16) Faluti, Arman; Zahrina Ida; Yelmida
    Has done research used cooking oil catalytic cracking produce biofuel with the help of FeMo catalyst/zeolite and varying temperatures (380, 400 and 420oC) and the concentration of Fe/Mo (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% by weight). The purpose of this research study the effect of two variables on yield (%) resulting product, knowing the main constituent component of biofuels and the best conditions of the catalytic cracking process used cooking oil. Of research, yield (%) highest product of 69.71% is obtained at a temperature of 400oC and the concentration of Fe / Mo 1% by weight. GC-MS analysis of the results obtained the highest conversion of biofuel product that is equal to 67.99% at 400oC temperature and concentration of metal Fe / Mo 1% by weight.
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    Konversi Cangkang Sawit menjadi Bio-oil Menggunakan Katalis Ni.Mo/Lempung Cengar
    (2013-07-16) Sandra, Anisa; Bahri Syaiful; Sunarno
    At this time the world experienced an energy crisis. This is due to the high dependence on fossil fuels, petroleum. Petroleum has the non-renewable nature and amount of production decline each year. Therefore, the innovation required to produce an alternative energy,that is bio-oil from biomass such as palm shells. Indonesia, has a vast plantation sector of palm oil. Bio-oil can be produced from palm shell waste through pyrolysis process using a catalyst Ni.Mo / Clay cengar. This study aimed to determine the effect of catalyst ratio Ni.Mo / Clay cengar the bio-oil produced. This pyrolysis used palm shell 50 grams, silinap 500 ml and the weight ratio of catalyst 0, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% w / w biomass. Bio-oil produced at the optimum catalyst ratio of 0.5% w / w of biomass with yield 40.0%. Results of bio-oil analyzed physics, density 0.9625 g / ml, viscosity 8.99 cSt, flash point 48 ° C, acid value 45.71 g NaOH/ g sample, and heating value 51.47 MJ / kg. GCMS analysis produced chemicals that bio-oil that can be processed further processed into alternative energy sources other than petroleum.