Marine Archaeological Resources In Indonesian Waters As Marine Tourism Destination: Case Studies: Liberty Wreck In Tulamben, Bali And Mv Boeloengan Nederlands In Mandeh Bay, West Sumatra

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Nowadays, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries is in trying to introduce the concept of Maritime Conservation Area that integrates the marine archaeological resources or underwater cultural heritage such as an ancient shipwreck, the site, the environmental ecosystems, and the local community. The purpose of establishing a Maritime Conservation Area is to protect the potential marine archaeological resources with a legal protection by law. Marine archaeological resources are the historical evidence for shipping, trading, and travelling activities of humankind since long ago. The shipwreck site could be a valuable object for further research and education and it has an economic value as a marine tourism destination that could benefits the local community. After designating the site as a Maritime Conservation Area, the shipwreck site could be developed to be a potential marine tourism destination in particularly as a wreck diving spot. This paper highlights the existence of several marine archaeological resources in Indonesian Waters that have potencies to be utilized as a special tourism attraction in this case as a wreck diving destination that could attract a lot of tourists from domestic and abroad. The shipwreck tourism destination could increase the economic life of local communities who reside in the vicinity of the shipwreck site. This paper also would focus on the presence of the Liberty shipwreck site in Tulamben, Karang Asem Regency, in Bali and the MV. Boeloengan shipwreck site in Mandeh Bay, Pesisir Selatan Regency, West Sumatra, which could be utilized as the most important shipwreck diving destination in Indonesian Waters. Protection by law, preservation and utilization efforts of those marine archaeological resources are important to support the development of marine sector in Indonesia that must be based on a comprehensive and integrated research which combines literature study, interviewing local community, diving activities, and the use of technology



Marine Archaeological Resources, Marine Tourism Destination, Wreck Diving, Maritime Conservation Area, Liberty Wreck, MV Boeloengan Wreck